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Physical Fitness [Men's Fitness]


Physical Fitness - Men's Fitness

Introduction

Good physical representative
Good physical representative

Good physical fitness means physical quality; physical fitness; physical quality; physical quality is the comprehensive performance of the functions of various organs, such as strength , under the regulation of central nervous system in exercise, labor and daily activities . Endurance , speed , sensitivity , flexibility and other body capabilities. The strength of physical fitness is one of the important indicators to measure the condition of a human body. The development of physical fitness is of great significance to enhancing people's physical fitness and health.

specific contents

Physical fitness includes five aspects: speed quality, the ability of the human body to move within unit time or the speed of response to external stimuli; strength is the strength of certain muscles when the body contracts; endurance quality refers to the length of the human body Time to perform muscle activity and resistance to fatigue; sensitive quality: refers to the ability to quickly change position, change movement and random strain; flexible quality refers to the elasticity and extension of muscles and ligaments of various joints when the human body is active.

Body shape

Body shape refers to the external shape and characteristics of the body, including body shape, body posture, nutritional status and body composition, reflecting the growth and development level of the human body. Generally, the body shape development level is examined by measuring height, weight, chest circumference, subcutaneous tissue, etc. Among them, height, weight and chest circumference are the three basic development indicators for measuring body shape. Good physical fitness at this point is characterized by well-proportioned shape, correct posture, and good nutritional status.

Physiological function

Physiological function refers to the ability of the human body to work under various metabolic systems. Common metrics include pulse, blood pressure, and vital capacity. Pulse refers to the beating of an artery caused by the impact of blood output when the heart contracts. By measuring the pulse rate, you can indirectly understand the activity of the heart. Blood pressure refers to the side pressure generated on the blood vessel wall when blood flows in a blood vessel. It is an important indicator reflecting the functional state of the cardiovascular system. Lung capacity refers to the total amount of gas exhaled when the body tries to exhale as much as possible after inhaling. It is the main indicator reflecting the function of breathing, and it is also one of the important functional indicators reflecting the level of human growth and development.

Sports quality and athletic ability

(1) Sports quality refers to the various functional abilities of various organ systems when the human body is engaged in physical labor or sports. It mainly includes speed, strength, endurance, sensitivity and flexibility.
(1) Speed. It refers to the number of times of completing the movement in unit time or the ability of the body to quickly displace. It can reflect the functional state of the human central nervous system and the regulating function of the nerves and muscles. It can also comprehensively reflect the explosiveness, sensitivity, response and flexibility of the human body. And other qualities. Its manifestations include reaction speed, speed of motion, and displacement velocity in medium-term motion. The test indicators are 50 meters, 4 seconds, and so on.
(2) Strength. It refers to the ability of the whole body or part of the body muscle to contract during contraction and relaxation. It is an important factor in the growth of muscle endurance and increase in speed, which contributes to the development of sensitivity. Test indicators include long jump, sit-ups, pull-ups, push-ups, grip strength, back muscle strength, abdominal muscle strength, and leg muscle strength.
(3) Endurance. It refers to the ability of the human body to perform muscle activity for a long time, also known as anti-fatigue ability. Endurance quality reflects the comprehensive state of muscle endurance, cardio endurance and general endurance. It is closely related to the function of muscle tissue, the function of cardiopulmonary system and the improvement of other basic system functions of the body. Endurance training can improve cardiovascular function and muscle endurance. The test indicators are 1000 meters (male), 800 meters (female) and so on.
(4) Sensitivity. It is a complex quality, a comprehensive manifestation of human activities, and refers to the ability of the human body to respond quickly and accurately to stimuli under flexible and variable conditions, and to perform movements flexibly. Sensitivity is a comprehensive ability that requires the coordination of multiple capabilities such as speed, balance, and flexibility to achieve a certain level. Test indicators include standing support, 4×10 meters round trip, repeated crossover, etc.
(5) Flexibility. It is the activity of the joints of the human body, the elasticity and stretch of the tissues around the joints (crossing the ligaments, tendons, muscles, skin and other tissues of the joints), and is the ability to increase the range of motion when the human body moves. It is very important for mastering sports techniques, preventing prejudice and possibility of injury, maintaining muscle elasticity and explosiveness, and maintaining body posture. The quality of flexibility depends not only on the structural characteristics, but also on the functional state of the skeletal muscles that the nervous system dominates. Test indicators include sitting body flexion, longitudinal frog and so on.
(2) Sports ability refers to the ability of the human body to show during exercise. It can be divided into general athletic ability and competitive sports ability. The former mainly refers to the basic ability of people to walk, run, jump, throw, climb, climb and climb in daily life, labor and general sports, while the latter is to complete the athletic ability of a competitive game.

Chinese characteristics

The school improves the physical quality of primary school students through gymnastics exercises
The school improves the physical quality of primary school students through gymnastics exercises
The school improves the physical quality of primary school students through gymnastics exercises. Physical fitness is an important part of physical fitness. It is the basic state and functional ability of the body, such as strength, speed and endurance. The quality of physical fitness directly reflects the strength of people's ability to withstand daily life. Based on the 2000 national physique monitoring data, the author analyzes the age, gender, living area (limited to the north and south) of the Chinese nationals and the status quo and changes of urban and rural areas, and thus derives the physical characteristics of Chinese people.

Strength

From the perspective of strength, the development of lower limbs, upper limb strength and strength endurance of adults in different ages in China has its own characteristics. Lower extremity strength (20-39 years old) showed a continuous decline with age, the decline was slightly larger than that of men; the south was better than the north; urban non-physical workers were better than urban manual workers than farmers; upper limb strength was The grip strength of adults before the age of 35 continues to show an increasing trend, and then the grip strength gradually decreases with age. Women’s upper limb strength lasts longer than men’s, and the growth rate is greater than that of men. The decline curve is characterized by synchronism, but the rate of decline is lower than that of men. The grip strength of the northerners is better than that of the south; the urban non-physical workers < urban manual laborers < farmers; the development of strength endurance is characterized by the growth of men and women. The South is better than the North. The characteristics of the work of strength endurance development are that different types of work show different characteristics in different age groups, but the final trend is that urban non-physical workers are better than urban manual workers than farmers. Speed ​​and sensitive quality From the perspective of speed and sensitive quality, the development of speed and sensitive quality of Chinese adults and the elderly is characterized by the increase of age, both males and females show a downward trend. The downward trend of males is slower and faster, while females are opposite. . The magnitude of the male and female genital ages is that men are better than women. The overall trend of the speed and sensitivity of Chinese adults in all ages is that the South is better than the North. The characteristics of the male and female speed and sensitive quality of all ages are as follows: urban non-physical workers are better than urban manual workers, and urban manual workers are better than farmers. Judging from the changing trend of balance ability, the male and female age groups of all ages and older people have a continuous downward trend in their ability to balance with age. The magnitude of the balance of men and women in the same age group is characterized by the fact that men are superior to women, and the differences are significant in all age groups between 35 and 39 years of age and beyond. The balance ability of China's Chengdu and the elderly has obvious north-south differences , and the south is better than the north. The balance of the ability of adults of different types of work in China for men and women of all ages is: urban non-physical workers <urban manual workers < farmers. The balance of rural men and women in all ages in China is better than that of urban elderly.

Flexibility

From the perspective of flexibility, the characteristics of the flexible qualities of Chinese adult and elderly age groups are: between 20 and 24 years old, the male and female sitting body are between 11-12 cm, and with the increase of age, the sitting body bends forward. The females continued to decline; however, the decline was lower in women than in men. The flexibility of Chinese adults and the elderly is adult in all ages, and the elderly in the north are better than the south, and the differences are significant. The characteristics of the flexible work of all ages are the best for farmers.

Self-assessment

Self-test heart rate method

Military physical training
Military physical training
Military physical fitness training method: run to the fourth floor in one breath, and then measure your heart rate. Evaluation criteria: If you can run to the fourth floor in one breath, I feel that it is not difficult, nor panting, to prove that the physical quality is good. The heart rate is 100 to 130 times per minute, and the constitution is quite good. The heart rate is 130 to 140 times per minute, and the constitution is average. If the heart rate is more than 150 times per minute, the constitution is poor, so pay attention to strengthen the exercise.

Self-test endurance method

Standing on the same level, the right foot first steps up two steps, the left foot then steps up two steps, then the right foot goes down two levels. In this cycle, one round is completed every 2 to 3 seconds, and the pulse rate is measured after 3 minutes. Evaluation criteria: Because there are significant differences in the physical and mental conditions between men and women, the standards of endurance are not the same. For males, pulse times 63 to 76 are good; 77 to 90 are good; 91 to 106 are general; 107 to 120 are in passing; and 121 to 134 are poor. For women, the pulse rate is 73-86; 87-100 is good; 101-117 is general; 118-130 is pass; 131-144 is bad. Self-test physical method: do sit-ups and push-ups ; stand against the wall, 90° between the legs, until the thighs feel hot. Evaluation criteria: sit-ups: 30 men and 20 women. Push-ups: 18 for men and 10 for women. Ma Bu insisted on passing for 1 minute, and those who insisted on 2 minutes were good, and those who stayed for 3 minutes or more were excellent. Self-testing flexibility method: sitting on a chair with legs straight and heel on the ground. Place a meter ruler in the middle of the two heels. The heels are 40 cm apart. Then tilt the upper body forward. Stretch the legs as far as possible. Touch the toes with your hands. If you can't touch them, separate the feet until the hands. Just touch the toes, and then mark the scale of the meter between the two heels. Evaluation criteria: The criteria for flexibility for men and women are also different. For men, when the distance between the two feet is: 20 ~ 30 cm, the flexibility is good; 40 ~ 53 cm is generally; 60 cm or more is poor. For women, when the distance between the feet is: 35 ~ 40 cm, the flexibility is good; 50 ~ 58 cm is generally; 70 cm or more is poor.

Development method

Method of developing strength

Improve physical fitness through long jump
Improve physical fitness through long jump
Improving physical fitness through long-distance exercise refers to the ability of muscle contraction to overcome resistance and resist resistance. It is one of the basic qualities of the human body and the basis for various sports. The development of strength can not only enhance muscle strength, improve the body's sturdiness, make the body more strong, full, well-proportioned, body-building, but also help to learn and master various sports techniques and skills to reduce sports injuries. The practice method of strength quality consists of some basic elements. By mastering these elements and their laws, we can create and design a variety of strength exercises according to the needs of exercise. Strength exercise can be divided into upper limb exercise and lower limb exercise. Exercise upper limb strength can choose pull -ups, push-ups and other sports, but also with dumbbells, pullers and other equipment; exercise lower limbs can choose to pick up, jump stairs, fast running. Those who are less powerful should pay attention to reducing the number of movements, such as doing a few pull-ups at a time, and jumping a few steps when jumping.

Method of developing endurance quality

Endurance quality refers to the ability of the human body to resist fatigue when exercising for a long time. Endurance quality is a comprehensive manifestation of the function and psychological quality of various organs and systems of the human body, and is also an important indicator of the physical strength of human beings. The development of endurance quality can effectively improve the function of the human respiratory system and cardiovascular system, improve the level of metabolism, enhance the ability to resist fatigue, and also cultivate excellent psychological qualities such as perseverance and tenacity.
The 12-minute run is a popular form of exercise in the world, and it is better for developing aerobic endurance and improving cardiovascular function. After running for 12 minutes, depending on the distance you run, check the score sheet to know your level of aerobic capacity. Endurance exercise can be divided into aerobic endurance and anaerobic endurance . Aerobic endurance sports include long-distance running, swimming , mountaineering, aerobics, etc.; anaerobic endurance sports include explosive movements such as sprinting, high jump, and long jump. People with poor explosive power should pay attention to shortening the distance of movement. Take long-distance running as an example, you can start from 500 meters per day and gradually transition to 800 meters, 1000 meters, and so on.

Method of developing speed quality

Practice to improve physical fitness
Speed ​​quality refers to the ability of the human body to move quickly. The ability of the nervous system to respond, the frequency of action and the magnitude of the action are the main factors affecting the development of speed quality. The development of speed quality has an important role in improving the cerebral cortex's ability to respond and quickly command and coordinate the body, making the body more flexible and making movements more rapid. To develop the speed quality, generally use exercises with high intensity and short duration. The exercises should be alternated under the conditions of full energy and strong desire for exercise. In the case of fatigue or only a single practice method, the shape and speed barriers cannot receive good results. At the same time, the development speed quality should be combined with development strength, speed endurance and flexibility, pay attention to improve muscle relaxation ability. .

reaction speed

Refers to the rapid response ability of the human body to various signal stimuli. The most common method is to use various sudden signals such as sound and light to allow the practitioner to quickly respond accordingly to improve the level of the function of the nervous system reflex arc. .

Speed ​​of action

Refers to the rapid ability of the human body to complete a certain action. Exercise methods to improve the speed of movement are:
(1) Reduce the difficulty of practice and add the help method. Such as traction assisted running or swimming, running downwind, running downhill, swimming along the water, pushing lighter and so on. 
(2) Increase the difficulty of practice and play the aftereffect method. If you are doing a heavy jump or pushing an overweight instrument, follow the exercises for jumping or throwing a standard instrument. (3) Time limit method. The action is completed at a predetermined acoustic beat frequency to change the exercise frequency and speed of the practitioner.

Displacement speed

It refers to the ability of the human body to move quickly during unit time in a periodic motion. Increasing the speed of movement is the basis for increasing the speed of displacement and is closely related to the explosive power of the muscles of the limbs. The following methods are usually used:
(1) Run fast. Such as short-distance running with the fastest speed, let the distance chase game, short-distance swimming, speed skating and so on.
(2) Exercises to accelerate the action frequency, such as fast frequency small step running, fast swing arm practice, etc.
(3) Develop the explosive power of the lower limbs. Such as negative jump, single foot jump, step jump and so on.

Method of developing sensitive qualities

Practice to improve physical fitness
Exercise physical fitness through jogging
Improve physical fitness exercises sensitive quality refers to people under various conditions sudden transformation that can quickly and accurately, the ability to coordinate changes in body movement. To develop sensitive sensitivities, to improve the flexibility of the cerebral cortex , to make certain corresponding actions quickly, accurately and harmoniously under changing conditions, to cultivate good observation and judgment speed, and to promote other qualities. Development has a very good effect. Sensitive quality is a reflection of the comprehensive ability of the human body and is greatly affected by genetic factors. In order to improve the sensitive quality, the coaches should adopt the practice method of gradually increasing the complexity as much as possible, and also increase the complexity and difficulty of the technical movement by changing the conditions, instruments and equipment. At the same time, we should also focus on cultivating and improving athletes ' ability to master movements, responsiveness, balance, observation, and rhythm. The main means of sensitive quality practice:
1, in the running, jumping to do a variety of running, dodging, sudden start and a variety of rapid emergency stop and rapid body-turning exercises. 
2. Do various exercises to adjust your body position. 
3, do a variety of complex and varied exercises designed specifically. Such as the use of "word run", "dodge run", "shuttle run" and "straight support" four comprehensive exercises. 
4. Exercises done in an unconventional position. Such as lateral or backward long jump, deep jump and so on.
 5. Limit space exercises to complete the action. Practice at a reduced ball sports venue. 
6. Change the practice of speed or rate of completion of the action . Such as changing the frequency of the action or gradually increasing the frequency of the action. 
7. Do a variety of chasing games in a changing direction and games that respond to various signals.

Ways to develop flexibility

Physical fitness through jogging refers to the extent of joint activity and the stretch and elasticity of soft tissues such as muscles and ligaments. The development of flexible quality is conducive to the correct mastery of various sports techniques, and in the case of sudden exertion, avoid damage to soft tissues such as muscles and ligaments. The method of developing flexibility: mainly to increase the range of motion, that is, the practice of stretching muscles, tendons, ligaments and skin. All flexible exercises should be done at least 5 to 10 times in a row, the range of motion should be gradually increased, and the flexibility of various parts of the body should be alternated and must be sustained. When the soft tissue is stretched, the body should be stuck for 8 to 10 seconds when it feels sour, bloating, and pain. This requires 8 to 10 repetitions of exercise to receive good results. In each exercise, the power stretching exercise is generally controlled between 15 and 25, and each exercise is preferably between 7 and 30 times. Note that the total time of flexible exercise should not be too long.

National concern

China adopted the " National Fitness Regulations " on the 19th executive meeting of the State Council on August 19   , 2009, and implemented on October 1, 2009. The people's fitness activities directly affect the physical quality of the people. It is one of the most concerned, most direct and most realistic interests of the people. The country has always attached great importance to the fitness of the whole people. In the past 30 years of reform and opening up, China's national fitness industry has flourished and the physical quality of the people has improved significantly. On the other hand, the growing demand for sports and fitness of the people and the relative shortage of social sports resources and limited supply of public services are more prominent. The scientific guidance, standardization services and safety guarantee measures for the national fitness activities need to be improved. National fitness needs legal promotion and protection. The purpose of formulating the "National Fitness Regulations" is to solve the difficulties and problems that hinder the people from participating in the national fitness activities, to allow more people to participate in fitness activities, and to effectively enhance the physical fitness of the people.

Other understanding

In the context of quality education, according to the development of the times and the requirements of practice, physical quality should be defined as the physiological condition and comprehensive relative stable quality or ability formed by the human body under the joint action of congenital factors and acquired factors. Congenital factors mainly refer to genetic factors, which provide preconditions for the formation and development of physical quality. Acquired factors mainly include nutritional status, medical conditions, climate environment, living habits and exercise and fitness factors. In other words, in addition to the traditional elements, physical fitness should also include aspects such as physical adaptability, resilience and ability to respond to emergencies.
The body's ability to adapt is manifested in adaptation to the natural environment and resistance to disease. The human body exercises for a long time under various climatic and environmental conditions, can improve the body temperature regulation function, thereby improving the body's ability to adapt to the natural environment; at the same time, because various physical exercises can promote blood circulation, strengthen metabolism, improve hematopoietic function, and thus improve The body's resistance to viruses and germs and immunity can effectively prevent various diseases including "civilized diseases."
Resilience refers to the ability of people to respond to unexpected events, sudden events, or how to respond appropriately at the fastest rate when the external environment changes.
Emergency handling capacity refers to the ability to deal with any incident that threatens national security, endangers public safety and social order, threatens the lives and property of citizens, and has the potential to cause serious consequences.


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